Japan once owned South half of the island, Sakhalin. There were many Japanese lived there.
Interesting bikes. Left 2 are probably Triumph Model SD (550cc), the headlight was optional( acetylene lamp) The other one in the back is called Ner-a-Car, originally England bike, but ones in Japan were usually produced in the US, made between 1921 to 1927. The one in front of a car, is a Harley. Model B 350cc.
There were no big 4 in Japan at the time.